Paper Title
Vehicular Pollution in Bengaluru City (India), A Challenge and Mitigation Measures

Air pollution is one of the serious environmental concerns of the Bengaluru City, where majority of the population is exposed to poor air quality. Emission from vehicles especially automobiles is responsible for about two third of air pollution in the urban area. The major pollutants emitted by motor vehicles including CO, NOx, sulphur oxides, (SO), HC, lead (Pb) and suspended particulate matter (SPM), have damaging effects on both human health and ecology. The internal combustion engines need a mixture of air and fuel to burn and produce energy to propel the vehicle. These burnt gases which come out of the exhaust are responsible for pollution. In petrol engines, the gases comprise a mixture of unburnt hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx). If these gases are in excess quantities, vehicular pollution is caused. Emissions of Diesel vehicles are the concentration of CO and unburnt HC in the diesel exhaust are rather low, both of which are compensated by high concentration of NOx and CO2. There are smoke particles and oxygenated HC, including aldehydes and odour-producing compounds. This paper initially presents various types of pollution emitted by vehicles in Bengaluru city, challenges and mitigation measures by the use of various new technologies of Automobile Engineering and Alternative fuels. Keywords - Emissions. Air Pollution; I.C Engines; Mitigation; Alternative Fuels, Integrated Rail-Road Transport.