Paper Title
Effect Of Dispersion Of Nonmaterial On Adhesion Properties Of Soil Using Atomic Force Microscopy

Soil has recently gained the attention in the field of nanoscale research because of the progress made in technical investigation. The main challenge that need to be encountered when nanomaterial is utilised in composites is dispersion whereby nanaocarbon (NCs) fibers attract each other strongly because of van der Waals forces. In this research, Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is utilised to examine the influence of adhesion force between clay particles and NCs before and after dispersion using ultrasonic device. The two types of NCs utilised in this research are carbon nanofiber and carbon nanotube. Soil samples reinforced with NCs are formulated by mixing them with water. Next, ultrasonic equipment is utilised to sonicate the soil sample. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FSEM) is utilised to inspect the efficiency of the dispersion methodology. Adhasion force is increased for reinforced soil up to 490% for CNT and 513% for CNF compared to unreinforced soil. The findings revealed that soil consists sufficient proportions of micro-particles (clay) can avoid re-agglomeration and clumping of NCs in the soil, hence can stabilize their dispersion. The adhesion force obtained from AFM of NCs reinforced soils showed that the reinforced soils revealed significant rise in the adhesion after ultrasonic dispesion of reinforcement samples. Keywords - Dispersion, Adhesion force, soil, microstructure, nanomaterial