Relationship Between Chemokine Profiles and Blood Cells in Some Cameroonians Infected with Falciparum Malaria
To evaluate chemokine responses in falciparum malaria and establish the relationship between this parasitic infection and the blood cells of volunteers.
Materials & Methods - Chemokines namely CX3CL1 CXCL5, CXCL7, CXCL9, CXCL11 and CCL28 in the serum of 88 volunteers with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and 8 control counterparts were analysed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Blood parameters were determined by an automated 5 Evolution Diana machine.
Results - The mean serum chemokines concentration of P. falciparum infected volunteers and their control counterparts were chemokines CX3CL1 (1.18±2.59 and 1.95±3.27) pg/ml; CXCL5 (9869.32±5114.13 and 12013.3±4503.0) pg/ml; CXCL7 (62.89±134.08 and 75.53±177.78) pg/ml; CXCL9 (575.91±443.67 and 455.33±307.66) pg/ml; CXCL11 (162.04±263.43 and 64.43±185.87) pg/ml; CCL28 (18.48±170.55 and 76.19±349.15) pg/ml. A higher mean chemokine CX3CL1 level was observed in the control volunteers than the symptomatic and asymptomatic volunteers but not statistically significant (χ2 = 1.0, P>0.05). Conversely, CXCL9 and CXCL11 had lower mean concentration for control individuals when compared with the symptomatic and asymptomatic volunteers and these differences were statistically significant (χ2 = 4.2, P<0.05). The correlation of CX3CL1 and CCL28 with WBC was negative and weak (r = -0.3 and r = -0.1). The relations between CX3CL1 and CXCL9 with lymphocytes were negatively correlated (r = -0.36 and r = -0.14).
Conclusion: Elevated chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL11 appear to protect the volunteers against falciparum malaria. Depressed chemokines CX3CL1, CXCL5, CXCL7 and CCL28 may be indicative of suppressed immunity, thereby influencing the pathogenesis of falciparum malaria in some Cameroonians. CXCL9 and CXCL11 can be used as biomarkers of falciparum malaria especially in subclinical cases.
Keywords - Asymptomatic, Blood cells, Chemokines, falciparum malaria, Symptomatic, Cameroon