Paper Title
Xenobiotics Related Animal Reproductive Alterations

Xenobiotics are chemicals found in an organism but they are not normally produced or expected to be present in it. Pollution of the environment and contamination of animals is serious problem in many countries. Target of this study was to estimate the effects of various environmental factors on structure and function of animal reproductive organs. In ovaries cadmium causes decrease of the relative volume of growing follicles and the number of atretic follicles is significantly increased. The most frequent ultrastructural alterations are undulation of nuclear membrane, dilatation of perinuclear cistern and endoplasmic reticulum. Various alterations were also found in the relative volume and follicular antrum formation. In testes, the administration various xenobics (Cd, Pb, Ni, Hg, Co) results in undulation of basal membrane, dilatation of blood vessels in interstitium and occurrence of empty spaces in germinal epithelium. Decreased relative volume of germinal epithelium, increased relative volume of interstitium and increased apoptosis occurrence suggests damaged interstitium and revealed occurrence of oedema was the most significant change. In vitro studies confirm dose– and time–dependent decrease of spermatozoa motility and alterations of cell membrane integrity. Keywords: Xenobiotics, Impact, Health, Reproduction