Paper Title
Automated Loading of Non-Cohesive Soils

The automated loading of soils requires often huge efforts and time. The estimation of such costs is a very difficult task which necessitates accuracy and agreement between the different parts involved in the contract Research in this topic attempts to find tools that facilitate such tasks and reduce the conflicts that may arise in construction contracts. The work presented in this paper is concerned with the determination of resisting forces involved during the loading of non-cohesive soils. Index Terms - Soil excavation, finite element analysis, non-cohesive soils, automatic loading