Paper Title
Deterioration Morphologies of Historic Ornamental Panels from The Mughal Historic Monuments of Lahore (Pakistan)

The historic ornamental panels from the historic monuments (Lahore, Pakistan) is considered to be the one of the most intricate and colourful cultural expression of unparalleled patterns, formed by an artistic interplay of geometry, proportions, pigments, materials and techniques reflecting the glorious Mughal era in the Indian subcontinent. These historic panels (mainly composed of glazed tiles) were documented in detail to study the deterioration phenomenon and the factors responsible for their rapid deterioration. This presented explorative research investigated the main types of deterioration morphologies including differential deterioration (flaking, detachments etc.), black and white crust, oxalate films, rust spots, fractures, patina and vegetation. This preliminary diagnostic study exhibited the deterioration morphologies found in selected heritage sites to develop the conservation-restoration strategy for glazed tile ornamental panels and for the preparation of preliminary treatments to stop further deterioration of these unique and irreplaceable historic assets. Index Terms—Architecture, Deterioration, Morphologies, Mughal