Effect of Group Counseling on Cervical Cancer Screening of Iranian Rural Women
Pap smear test is an appropriate screening method for early diagnosis of cervical cancer and reduction of the mortality rate. This study is conducted with a purpose to determine the effect of group counseling based on the Health Belief Model on beliefs and performance of rural women in cervical cancer screening. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 80 rural women under coverage of the health care center in city of Kabudrahang, Iran in 2015. The data collection tool was a self-made questionnaire including the demographic information, Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs and screening performance. Group counseling was done in three sessions for experimental group. The counseling was included an introduction to the cervical cancer, disease symptoms, warning signs and prevention of cervical cancer. Pap smear test in both groups was evaluated two months after the group counseling. Before the intervention, there was no significant difference between both groups in the Health Belief Model constructs and performance. After the intervention, a significant difference was seen between two groups in the perceived susceptibility (P<0.001), severity (P=006), benefits (P=012), barriers (P<0.001), and self-efficacy (P=002). Two months after the intervention, 17 patients (42.5%) in the experimental group, and 4 patients (10%) in the control group had done the Pap smear test (P<0.001). Design and implementation of counseling programs based on the HBM can modify the beliefs of rural women in cervical cancer screening and increase their performance.
Keywords- Cervical cancer, Pap smear, Health belief, Counseling, Rural.