Loanwords in The Malay Terminology: From The Perspective of Translation
In the development of a language, the contacts with another language is a very common phenomenon. Malay is also experiencing various contacts of languages and cultures. Loanwords occur due to contact with different languages and cultures. A loanword is distinguished from a calque (loan translation), which is a word or phrase whose meaning or idiom is adopted from another language by translation into existing words or word-forming roots of the recipient language. This paper discusses the loanwords in the Malay language from the perspective of translation. The researcher looks into the English texts and translated version in the Malay texts. Thus, this paper explores whether there exist similarities and connections between Malay and other cultures. This paper also analyses the differences between languages, in terms of cultural differences. One of the translation procedures are available in translating literary text is borrowing (transference). Translation procedures that involve can be generalise into three categories; (i) borrowing (transference), (ii) adaptation between two cultural word (naturalization and modification), and (iii) description of the cultural word (addition and descriptive equivalence). Findings indicate that borrowing occurs due to differences between two languages and cultures. This procedure offers local colour and atmosphere towards the target reader, however transference does not communicate, and it emphasises the source culture and excludes the message. The findings also show that the loanwords can be classified into a number of categories namely, unassimilated loanwords, partial assimilation, and full assimilated loanwords. The best choice for the translator is that minimises the differences, and choose the one that would convey the message closer to the source language using the borrowing procedures.
Index Terms-Loanwords, Malay Language, Translation, Borrowing, Culture