Paper Title
Cognitive Systems Evolution: Immigrant Last Generations and Cognitive Mapping Changing

Abstract
There is little evidence on the correlation between immigration effects and the mind and cognition evolution. Last generations of young immigrants are expected to experience adaptive strategies to respond to the school environment in order to achieve success. Specifically concerning the new language learning in the diversity of the host countries (plus the diversity of the countries of origin and home languages/cultures), it should be analyzed how the human cognitive aptitude (language aptitude and problem solving) is being reorganized in terms of thought, concepts and cultural orientations previously developed in the mother tongue. The mother tongue is mentally associated to concepts and events of a culture and the self-regulation implies consciousness in a home culture as a reference. How does it works for new immigrants that were separated (mainly for refugees – forced immigration) from their unique cognitive reference? Different cognitive achievements and language deficits would be constrained in their natural development and differences in academic achievement are expected. The biological hypothesis of critical period should be also revisited concerning the new waves of immigration and ethnic differentiation in current generations. The present study examines populations’ differences – ethnic and gender – on specific language and cognitive tasks considering immigrant students in Portuguese schools (M=13 years old; SD= 2,7) with origin in different world areas: Western Europe, Eastern Europe, African countries, Latin America, Asia (Indian Asia) and China and with different home languages and cultures. Data showed a variability of groups’ achievements in vocabulary, verbal reasoning and comprehension. Different predictors were also observed with impact for performance quality in language specific tasks and general problem solving. Disparities among the minorities will be discussed considering educational and ethological implications. Population evolutionary characteristics might be concluded from those disparities. Keywords- Cognitive Mapping, Second Language, Immigration, School Population, Critical period hypothesis.