Paper Title
Comparison With Laser Needle, Conventional Tens, and Acupuncture-Like Tens Upon Pain And Blood Flow in Healthy People

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a new treatment for pain, and it can be subdivided into conventional TENS (C-TENS) and acupuncture-like TENS (A-TENS). More recently, high power lasers have increasingly been usedto reduce pain caused by arthritis, residual neuralgia, and musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the laser needle with C-TENS and acupuncture-like TENS in terms of pain and blood flow in healthy people, as well as to confirm that thelaser needle can replace TENS to treat pain in some cases. The selected subjects were divided using Minimize computer software into a laser group (n=13), a C-TENS group (n=13), and an A-TENS group (n=14); they underwent a pre-test for blood flow and pain in their forearm. The three groups received their respective interventions; they then underwent a second pain and blood flow test on the same spot. No significant differences wereobserved in the A-TENS group between the pre- and post-tests, anda comparison amongthe three groups revealed no significant differences between the laser needle group and the C-TENS group in terms of pain. Regarding blood flow, no significant differences were found between the pre- and post-tests in the laser needle group; a comparison amongthe three groups only revealed asignificant between the laser needle and A-TENS groups. This study confirmed that the laser needle can be used to treat pain when it is necessary to control blood flow. Index Terms- Laser needle, conventional TENS, acupuncture-like TENS, blood flow, pain