Paper Title
The Collective Efficacy (CE) Scale Revisited For School Communities in Turkey

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to adapt Collective Efficacy (CE) scale for school communities into Turkish on a group of K-12 teachers. “Collective efficacy is the shared perceptions of teachers in a school that the efforts of the faculty as a whole will have positive effects on students” (Goddard, Hoy, and Woolfolk, 2000). The orijinal CE scale is a 21-item, six-point Likert scale developed by Goddard, Hoy, and Woolfolk (2000) after the modification of items from Gibson and Dembo (1984) teacher efficacy scale as to reflect collective efficacy. Later, Goddard (2002) built on the work of Goddard, Hoy, and Woolfolk (2000) to develop and test the short version of CE Scale with 12 items. The psychometric properties of the short form were found equivalent to the longer 21-item form and revealed a strong validity and reliability (Goddard, 2002). The purpose of this study is to develop an improved measure of Collective Efficacy (CE) based on the Goddard’s (2002) earlier 12-item scale for the school communities in Turkey. The development of the improved measure of CE included several phases. First phase began translating the items of Goddard’s (2002) earlier 12-item scale by a professional translator for language equivalence. The second phase included the enhancement of the content coverage of the earlier 12-item CE scale by adding three items to task analysis (TA) dimensions in regards to educational technology and school-parent collaboration. Following this, the validity and reliability studies were carried out on 143 K-12 teachers working at four different schools in the same school chain in Turkey. Results from the study suggested that the 15 items did indeed offer a valid and reliable measure to measure a school community’s perceived collective efficacy. Keywords- Collective self-efficacy,K-12 schools, CE scale-expanded, Turkey