The Fourth Generation of Antioxidant; Superparamagnetic Nanoantioxidant
Antioxidants play important role in improving health by decreasing oxidative damage. Reactive oxygen (ROS) are main cause of oxidative stress. These reactive species destroy lipids, nucleic acids and proteins by cell death, mutation and failure within these systems. ROS are either produced in the body by metabolic activities or other environmental factors, which are usually neutralized by antioxidant defence system consisting of naturally generated in situ (endogenous antioxidants), or externally provided through foods (exogenous antioxidants).Gallic acid (GA), consisting of tri-hydroxylated phenolic structure, is an intermediate in secondary plant metabolism in higher plants.It has a diverse range of applications in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Gallic acid is famous for its multi-therapeutic protecting properties, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic properties. In recent years, researchers have investigated a variety of nanomaterials due to their ability free radical scavenging capacity and decrease oxidative stress. These nanomaterials having particles size at nanoscale, are highly reactive and potent antioxidants. Antioxidant activity of nanomaterials depends upon chemical composition, particle size, surface charge and surface coating.In this paper we report the synthesis of ultra-small superparamagnetic magnetite nanoantioxidants functionalized with gallic acid by both in situ and post functionalization method. The nanocomposite was successfully characterized by Raman, EDX mapping, HRTEM, XRD, VSM and FTIR techniques. The addition of gallic acid as a controlling agent affected both the size and size distribution of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and the aggregation state of the obtained products. The synthesised organic nanomagnetite are hydrophilic and exhibits greater antioxidant activity and degrades DPPH radicals efficiently. The synthetic methodology proposes the potential applications of magnetite in industry.