Water Quality Assessment Of Some Selected Hand Dug Wells And A Pond In The Ancient Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria
Water was sampled from nine (9) hand dug wells and a pond in the Ancient parts of Bauchi metropolis, Nigeria in May, 2012.The water quality parameters for portability have been examined using physico-chemical and microbiological indices. Analysis was done using standard methods. The results showed the ranges of the parameters as follows: Temperature 28.8-30.3oC, Turbidity 0.4 - 12 NTU, Electrical Conductivity (EC) 620 - 2420 μs/cm, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) 310-1216 mg/L, pH 7.0-7.6, Total hardness 180-990 mg/L, Fe2+ 0.00-3.34 mg/L, Cu2+ 0.00-0.47mg/L, F- 0.00-0.032 mg/L, Zn2+ 0.00-0.84 mg/L, NO3- 1.907-350.0 mg/L, Pb2+ 0.00-0.001 mg/L, SO42- 35.0-450 mg/L, Cl- 125-422 mg/L, Cr6+ 0.00-0.001 mg/L, Total Coliform 50-622 cfu/100ml and faecal Coliform 14-601 cfu/100ml. pH is within, Cu2+, F-, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cr6+ are below, while total hardness, HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+ Total and faecal Coliform are above the maximum permissible limit (MPL) of the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) of Nigeria Industrial Standards (NIS) in all the samples. Turbidity is above in Kofar Idi (SW3) and below MPL of the NIS in the remaining nine (9) samples. Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) are below in Railway (GW5), Unguwar Gulmammu (GW6), and above the MPL of NIS in the remaining eight (8) sample stations respectively. Fe2+ is below the MPL of NIS at Rariya, Bakin Kura (GW1), Shakel Yammawa (GW2), Kofar Dumi (GW4); Railway (GW5) and Gwallaga (GW9) and above at Kofar Idi (SW3), Unguwar Gulmammu (GW6), Dutsin Tanshi (GW7), Unguwar Kuka (GW8), Nufawa Behind Bata (GW10). NO3- and NO2- are below the MPL of NIS at Kofar Dumi (GW4) and above in the remaining nine (9) sample stations. Pb2+ is within the MPL of NIS in all the samples. SO42- is below the MPL of NIS at Kofar Idi (SW3) and Unguwan Kuka (GW8) and above at eight (8) remaining sample stations. Cl- lowest concentration below the MPL of NIS at Railway (GW5) and highest is above at Rariya Bakin Kura (GW1). The high values of most of the parameters might be due to urbanization, proximity of dumpsites, gutter streams, pit latrine and contributions from natural source.
Keywords- Water Quality, NIS, Bauchi-Nigeria, Standard Methods.