Causes and Consequences of Informal Settlement Planning in Lusaka District: A Case Study of Garden House
The main objective of the study was to investigate the causes and consequences of unauthorised structures in Lusaka District: A case study of Garden House Township. Informal settlements have been an integral part of urban settlements in the country. These settlements, which started as temporary homes to the urban poor on casual employment during the colonial era now form a permanent feature of urban areas and are homes to over 70 percent of the urban population. There are two cities within one city, that is, one part of the urban population that has access to all the basic facilities and amenities of urban living while the other part is deprived or lack access to the same facilities and amenities. Lusaka is experiencing this dualistic phenomenon as a result of increase in urbanization rate. Existing legal and regulatory frameworks mainly focus on planned areas and do not adequately provide for the informal settlements where the majority of people in the major urban areas live. Government and local authority institutions lack resources to provide adequate urban land administration and guide development. These institutions have lost control of urban land administration and management. Urban land management in major cities of Zambia has been hijacked by political party cadres and some corrupt Government and council officials who have created an informal land administration system parallel to the dysfunctional formal system. The informal land administration system thrives on corruption and anarchy. The growth of informal settlements in urban areas is caused by physical, socio-economic, cultural, institutional, political and historical factors. The physical factors concern the nature of the land on which people build unauthorised structures. Example of such lands include marginal or less valuable urban lands such as along river valleys, steep slopes, dumping grounds, abandoned or unexploited plots and in low lying areas and wetlands. Advantageous locations of lands that attract dwellers of unauthorised structures are also considered under this factor; these include settling along transportation networks, near industrial areas and market places. The study adopted the cross-sectional design. In this type of study design, either the entire population or a subset of the population is selected, and from these individuals, data was collected to help answer research questions of interest. Both primary and secondary data were used in the study. Primary data was collected using interview schedules, in-depth interviews and observation. The primary data was collected from respondents at Garden House Township. The data to be collected from the field included socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, factors responsible for the growth of unauthorised structures, the awareness of developers (house-owners) on building regulations, respondentsí perception of land-use planning, and the problems facing respondents as a result of the unauthorised structures. Secondary materials were obtained from books, journals, newspapers, articles, reports, the internet, as well as conference and working papers that concern themselves with the topic under investigation. Multiple factors (socio-economic, cultural, institutional, physical, political and historical) account for the growth of unauthorised structures at Garden House Township. Flooding, poor sanitation, over-crowding, inadequate infrastructure, and poor accessibility are the main problems that confront the residents of Garden House Township.
Keywords- Informal Settlement, Socio-economic factors, Cultural factors, Institutional factors, Political factors and historical factors.