Inference of water waves surface elevation from horizontal velocity components using Physics Informed Neural Networks (PINN)

Abstract.In this paper, a mathematical model is presented to infer the wave free surface elevation from the horizontalvelocity components using Physics Informed Neural Network (PINN). PINN is a deep learning framework to solve forward and inverse Ordinary/Partial Differential Equations (ODEs/PDEs). The model is verified by measuring a numerically generated Kelvin waves downstream of a KRISO Container Ship (KCS). The KCS Kelvin waves are generated using two phase Volume of Fluid (VoF) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation with OpenFOAM. In addition, the paperpresented the use of the Fourier Features decomposition of the Neural Network inputs to avoid the spectral bias phenomena; Spectral bias is the tendency of Neural Network to converge towards the low frequency solution faster than the high frequency one. Fourier Features decomposition layer showed an improvement for the model learning, as the model was able to learn the high and low frequency components simultaneously. Keywords.Two phase flow, Volume of Fluid, Physics Informed Neural Networks, OpenFOAM.