BULLYING IN SCHOOLS: IN THE ASPECT OF KAZAKHSTAN
Abstract - The aim of the study: to determine the prevalence of bullying among children and adolescents, to identify the risks and suggest ways to prevent bullying. The following psychological methods concerning the problem of bullying were chosen for the research work: the technique of determining "Bullying - structure" (E. G. Norkina), the questionnaire of getting out of stressful situations S. Hobfall, the technique of studying the tendencies of victim behavior, as well as conversation, theoretical and statistical analysis of the results. The study involved 63 pupils of 6-8 grades of Kazakhstan of both sexes. The results were obtained: children face bullying, but more often not open violence, but psychological bullying: name-calling, bullying, mockery. There are children who remain isolated and feel discomfort from it. Children also noted that they face various forms of bullying not only from classmates, but also from teachers. There are discrepancies in the research results by gender. Boys more often become "victims" of bullying than girls, as well as boys more often use the strategy of assertive behavior, and girls - manipulation. In order to correct interpersonal relations, we conducted conversations and a series of trainings with pupils aimed at the cohesion of the pupils' collective, development of communication skills, improvement of the psychological microclimate in groups. Conclusion: bullying exists in children and adolescents, has various forms of spreading, the teaching staff does not always notice its manifestations and sometimes initiates bullying not consciously. Therefore, special programs of bullying prevention in schools and practical recommendations for teachers, students and their parents on its prevention are necessary.
Keywords - Bullying, School, Bullying Risks, Psychological Trauma, Prevention