FACTORS, CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING (AS AN EXAMPLE OF SCHOOLS IN KAZAKHSTAN)
Abstract - Bullying, the most common form of violence and a serious unresolved problem in the lives of schoolchildren, is increasingly becoming a global health issue.Bullying is caused by the interaction of several complex factors, including students' individual characteristics, relationships with peers and adults, and school or social norms. Due to many risk factors, the prevalence of bullying in school is methodologically justified. The study also explains the findings of qualitative studies that show the phenomenon of bullying.The data was analyzed using a combination of theoretical and statistical methods. The systematic review of literature method was used throughout the study. The authors used Google Scholar, ERIC, Elsevier, Web of Science, and Scopus databases, as well as official Kazakhstan government websites and media resources. Using the content analysis method, basic categories such as general types of bullying, factors associated with bullying, causes, and consequences were identified. Our study's main goal is to identify the factors, causes, and consequences of bullying and cyberbullying. The study was conducted by students of grades 5-6 of General Secondary School No. 19 named after Mashhur Zhusup in Pavlodar, Republic of Kazakhstan. The respondents were chosen using a simple random sampling method.Thus, the following psychological method was used to collect data on bullying and cyberbullying in schoolthe survey "Assessment of the degree of protection of individuals from cyberbullying". This psychological method will be described in this research. According to the results of the study, it was revealed that not only schoolchildren and teachers, but also the administrative staff of the school faced the problems of bullying and cyberbullying. The causes of bullying in school were studied taking into account four types of factors (personal, family, school and social). In conclusion, the consolidation of preventive measures into a single system will produce a psychologically secure environment within the educational organization. Essentially, each event leads to the formation of certain attitudes in an individual student, as well as the implementation of anti-bullying rules and norms.
Keywords - Bullying, Cyberbullying, School Bullying, School Environment, Anti-Bullying Programs.