Relationships Between The Intrinsic Properties of Electrical Currents And Temperatures
The movements of one-ns valence electrons in an alkali metal atom are investigated from a microscopic perspective. The reason that we do not usually observe spontaneous currents without an external applied electric or magnetic field is elucidated from the perspective of the intrinsic features of a single electron rather than from a statistical perspective. Once an ns valence electron starts to move clockwise, a strong magnetic field, which causes the electronic states with clockwise motion to become unstable, is induced; thus, the ns valence electron starts to move counter-clockwise, and vice versa. The spin magnetic moment and the Stern–Gerlach effect in an electron are the main reasons that spontaneous current is suppressed at room temperature. Furthermore, the possible occurrence of spontaneous currents in alkali metal atoms at very low temperatures is suggested. We also show that the two-fluid model, which has been widely considered in the solid state physics, is not necessarily realistic. Furthermore, we reconsider the interpretation of the order parameter in the Ginzburg–Landau theory on the basis of our theory.
Keywords- Ginzburg–Landau Theory; Stern–Gerlach Effect; Spontaneous Currents; Two-Fluid Model.