PRIORITIZING THE FACTORS AFFECTING RECYCLING OF E-WASTE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A FRAMEWORK TO ACHIEVE CIRCULAR ECONOMY
Abstract - The electric and electronic industry has experienced tremendous expansion in recent years, which has resulted in a high rate of obsolescence and a drop in the End of Life (EOL) or End of Use (EOU) of the product. E-waste is the word used to describe these unused electrical and electronic devices. E-waste management can be achieved through reuse, refurbishment, remanufacturing, and recycling, which will help to achieve a circular economy. Recycling is effectively conducted in developed countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany for a variety of products, while developing countries such as India, Brazil, and China are at nascent stage. Developing countries face a number of challenges, and the only solution is to reduce waste and engage in recycling. In order to achieve recycling, it is necessary to identify the factors affecting recycling for effective e-waste management. In this study, the author used previously published literature and expert opinion to identify the factors influencing e-waste recycling, and then interpretive structural modelling (ISM) technique is used to determine the driving and dependance factors. A total of eleven factors have been identified: Technical skills in recycling product design,high investment cost, incentives for adoption of recycling, government policies, insufficient infrastructure, quality of return products, quantity of return products, timing of return products, customer awareness towards circular economy, producer responsibility organizations (PRO) and collection system. A pairwise comparison matrix is developed using the responses of experts after normalization and prioritization of the factors. Government policy and incentive for adoption of recycling is the most influential factors. The least influential factor influencing e-waste recycling is infrastructure. After that, a framework is developed for successful implementation of recycling and to achieve a circular economy. Government policy is the most influential factor that directly affects recycling; the government has to come forward and offer subsidies or incentives to both recyclers and consumers to encourage recycling. This study promotes manufacturers for sustainable e-waste remanufacturing in India.
Keywords – E-Waste, Recycling, Circular Economy, AHP