RENEWABLE ENERGY AND GEOPOLITICS STUDY
Abstract - This paper reviews the literature on the renewable energy geopolitics. Based on our results while the history of the first scientific reports can be traced back to about the 1975, most of it has been published from 2010 and later. The following can be mentioned from the obtained results: renewable energy has many advantages over fossil fuels for international peace and security; anyway, for renewable energy there is idea to exacerbate geopolitical tensions and security risks related to critical cybersecurity and materials; hydrocarbon former exporters will likely be the greatest losers from the transition of energy. According to our observations, most articles do not distinguish between different renewable energy types with the geopolitical risks associated, and only a some distinguish clearly between the geopolitics of a post energy transition world and the transitional phase geopolitics. An asymmetrically great part of the literature is private to critical cybersecurity and materials, while that only concerns little part the old powers of fossil fuel decrease. Among those literatures that do consider the fossil fuels decline, there is also an over focus on producers on oil and a lack of attention to the countries that rely heavily on coal, for example Germany, Australia, Indonesia, China, Poland and etc.
Keywords - Geopolitics Study; Renewable Energy; Transition of Energy; Energy Security; Petrostate Decline; Critical Materials.