Factors Affecting Remanufacturing of E-Waste in Developing Countries
In the last few decades, there is massive growth in the electrical and electronic industry as a result of these more products are getting obsolete, hence, there is rapid growth in the electrical and electronic waste, demand of electronic product growing enormously resulting more amount of e-waste. E-waste management can be achieved through reuse, refurbished, remanufacturing and recycling. Remanufacturing is effectively conducted in developed countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany for a variety of products, while developing countries such as India, Brazil, and China are at nascent stage (Singhal, Tripathy, and Jena 2020). Remanufacturing is a method for transforming End of use product (EOU) or End of life product (EOL) to the given standards or specifications of the original product, remanufacturing is at an emerging stage in India. In this study, author aims to detect the critical factors, which will affect the success of e-waste remanufacturing and find out the logical relationship between them by using interpretative structural modelling (ISM). Ten factors have been taken using of literature survey and experts in the respective field. Further, these ten factors are divided into six levels based on the logical relationship among them or by using ISM model, top levels show strong dependence power and the bottom level shows strong driving power. The result shows that government support (GS), timing of return (TR) and marketing strategies (MS) are the major critical factors in the hierarchy and shows strong driving power in remanufacturing, market access (MA), product design (PD), collection strategies (CS), return intension (RI), consumption attitude (CA), assured warranty (AW) and workforce and technology (WT) shows strong dependence power as they are in top levels of ISM model. Government support (GS) are at level six of ISM model shows strong driving power it is one of the critical factors, which strongly effects the remanufacturing of e-waste, government, have to come onward and offer subsidy to both manufacturer and consumer to encourage remanufacturing. This study promotes the manufacturer for sustainable e-waste remanufacturing in India.
Keywords: E-Waste, Remanufacturing, ISM.