Sero-Epidemiology Of Human Brucellosis Among Healthy Individuals In Southern Part Of Ethiopia: Calling Attention To Out-Of-Sight Zoonotic Disease
Background:Human Brucellosis is neglected in Ethiopia and is often out of sight and control despite its public health significance. The majority of the population is also agrarian with an integrated extensive animal husbandry. This study was conducted to determine the sero-prevalence, titration and risk factors for Brucellosis transmission in apparently healthy individuals in the Southern Part of Ethiopia
Method: a cross sectional study was conducted from January-March 2014 among apparently healthy individuals identified from Arba Minch blood donation center in the Southern region of Ethiopia. Serum samples were used to screen for agglutinin reactive to stained antigen of Brucellaabortus. Standard tube titrations were done for reactive samples to determine the titer level. Structured questionnaire was used to gather data on common risk factors for Brucella infection that includes exposure of an individual to cattle and consumption of animal products. Standard binary logistic regression and exact logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association of potential risk factors for Brucellasero-positivity.
Result: Based on analysis of the presence of Brucella agglutinins, the sero-prevalence of Brucellosis was 10.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.0%, 14.0%). The average serum agglutination titer level was found to be 1:37 (range <1:20-1:80).Sero-positivity was significantly associated with being a farmer by occupation (odds ratio [OR]: 3.68 ([95% CI: 1.58, 8.58]), availability of ruminant animals at home (OR: 2.91 [95% CI: 1.12, 7.58]), current contact with cattle (OR: 2.61 [95% CI: 1.04, 6.55]), and having ever assisted abortion of cattle (OR: 2.81 [95% CI: 1.02, 7.79]).
Conclusion: Peoples exposure to Brucella species is commonin the southern part of Ethiopia as indicated by the presence of agglutinin in more than 10% of apparently healthy individuals. Being a farmer, possession of cattle and history of contact with cattle were associated with higher odds of Brucellasero-positivity.
Keywordsó Human Brucellosis, Brucellaabortus, Titration, Brucella Agglutinin, Sero-Prevalence, Risk Factor, Ethiopia