Explain the Process of Historical Causality in Society Development Based on the Attitude of Ibn Khaldun
In history science, understanding the process of historical causality and its role in society development and also its effect on forming human society is so important and significant. Tracking and Recognition of historical events by analyses based on causality principal and finding the root of the causes chains is considered as the most important and difficult process of historical analyses in scientific historiography. Recording a hierarchical of events, successive expression of them and inference of exemplary teachings could be helpful in practical and pedagogy, but the main purpose of history science as a scientific and philosophic research is not to explain and analyze the reasons of historical events.
To understand the true historical events, we must endeavor to find the reasons caused to formed the same events, because these reasons came together and coordinated so that appear the essence and truth of historical events. According to Ibn Khaldun , in nature of causes chains, the civil science is notworking to all causes or the final cause , but he discusses immediately subjective, formal, material and final causes which are related to the understanding the history processes . Although Ibn Khaldun doesn’t deny the possibility of infinite causes, but he believes all causes finally lead to the first and last cause. Thus he explain four causes: subjective, formal, material and final to form a community and believes the government as formal cause, culture as material cause, fanaticism as subjective cause and welfare as final cause . This article aims to explain the process of historical causality in society development based on four mentioned causes of Ibn Khaldun attitude.
Keywords— Historical Causality, Society, Ibn Khaldun, Understanding The History, Fanaticism, Government, Culture, Welfare.