Renewable Energy Sources in Slovakia: Possibilities of Consumptionoptimization in Residential Buildings
Renewable energy sources (RES) have an important place in the Slovak energy sector. The current growth in the share of energy from the RES since 2005 was the result of growth in gross total RES consumption and GDP growth. The share of RES in the final gross energy consumption in the Slovak Republic (SR) in 2019 reached a level of almost 16.9%, while Slovakia at the European level has committed to increase the share to 19.2% by 2030. Slovakia currently does not have sufficient RES support, especially at the national level. That is why we see reducing energy needs as one of the most optimal solutions. We consider industry and buildings to be key sectors here. This article focuses on the issue of reducing energy demand in the sector of residential buildings. The estimated share of the building sector in the final energy consumption in the SR is approximately 40%, while 70% of the energy consumed in buildings is used for heating and cooling. There are approximately 1 million residential and family buildings in Slovakia. More than half of all buildings are energy inefficient. If we can reduce the energy demand in this area and eliminate it, then we can meet the optimized demand much more easily with a combination of RES without enormous increases in capacity. A significant reduction in the energy demand of buildings can be ensured through a deep renovation of buildings, through which we can reduce the energy consumption of the building by more than 60%. According to our calculations, the energy savings potential of nonrenovated residential buildings represents savings between 7,155-8,347 GWh. The current pace of building renovation in Europe and SR is very low and insufficient to achieve the goal of climate neutrality by 2050; therefore, it needs to be increased.
Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, Energy Demand, Residential Buildings, Deep Renovation, Slovak Republic.