The Effects of Private Tutoring on Academic Achievement in Thailand
To analyze the effect of private tutoring on students’ academic scores, the two-stage least square with the instrumental variable is used to correct the endogeneity problem. The results reveal that Mathematic and English tutoring help increase the students’ O-net scores when compared to those who have not taken any tutoring. Moreover, the more English tutoring taken, the more English O-net score received. However, unlike English, Mathematics O-net score does not go up in proportion to the amount of time spent in private tutoring. Whereas Students with higher O-net scores are likely to progress more significantly than students with lower O-net scores. This shows the inequality of academic outcomes due to private tutoring.
In addition to the O-net score, faculty entering is used to measure the academic outcome. To analyze the effect of private tutoring on faculty entering in bachelor’s degree, the multinomial logistic regression is used to study this objective. The results show that students who take more private tutoring in Mathematics subjects are more likely to enter science-related faculties than social science-related faculties. And students who take more English private tutoring are more likely to enter science-related faculties than art-related faculties.
Keywords - Private tutoring, Academic achievement, Inequality, Faculty entering.