Paper Title
Longitudinal Causal Relationship Between Teaching Instruction and Intrinsic Motivation on Self-Study Hours, Comprehension and Achievement in Mathematics: Focusing on Gender Differences of High Achieving Students

The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences of high achieving students exist in the mean levels of and relations between perceived teaching instruction, Intrinsic motivation, self-study hours, comprehension, and achievement in mathematics.For the purpose, the Korean Education Longitudinal Study (KELS) was analyzed. The results of the study showed that high-achieving girls had lower levels of perceived effective teaching instruction in math class and math intrinsic motivation when they were 9th grade than high- achieving boys. However, high-achieving girls reported more self-study hours, higher level of math comprehension, and higher achievement at 11th grade compered to high-achieving boys.Regarding to the causal relation between research variables, the results showed positive effects ofeffective teaching instruction on math intrinsic motivations, compression, and math self-study hours when they were 9th graders. In addition, 11th grade’s intrinsic motivation, comprehension, and self-study hours positivelypredicted the 12th grades’ math score of college scholastic ability test. The math teaching instruction had stronger effect on high-achieving boys’ math intrinsic motivation and on high-achieving girls’ math comprehension compared to the opposite gender. Index Terms—Gender differences, Math achievement, Math intrinsic motivation, Self-study hours, Teaching instruction.