Use of The Laccase in Bioremediation
Laccase is an example of multicopper enzymes and it is blue in colour. Itcatalyses oxidation reaction via one electron transfer. The laccase converts oxygen to the water with electronic reduction. Thelaccaseisconservationist, sustainable, environmentallysound, multifaceted and flexible biocatalyst and these properties makes it an interesting area of research in the field of biotechnology. Laccases are also used in industries such as processedfood, beverage industry and in the field of the medical diagnosis. Laccases are used in the construction of furniture because they have the properties of cross-linkingand are also useful in the production biofuel from lignocellulosics. The bioremediation methods of chemical, physical and biological origin have been employed to keep the environment clean and pollution free, but these methods were proven to be insufficient to clean the environment. Bioremediation which is based on the enzyme is a versatile approach. The xenobiotic compounds are uncooperative and intractable and their bioremediation is done on the basis of enzymatic degradation. Several microbial enzymes were taken from different sources and were characterized. The bioremediation capability has led to the isolation of the various microbial enzymes. A large number of the recombinant enzymes have been formed due to high potentiality and the prospects of genetic engineering. The stability and enzyme activity of the enzymes can be enhanced by enzyme immobilization.
Keywords - Bioremediation, Enzyme Immobilization, Xenobiotics, Laccase, Environment, Biodegradation