Paper Title
Roles of Chicken Feather Hydrochar in Improving Phosphorus Bioavailability in Soil

Chicken poultry processing activities generate huge amounts of organic by- products like feathers are a severe problem due to difficulty in management and feather protein wastage. Chicken feather could be potential source of nitrogen fertilizer and adsorbent of pollutants through conversion. The change and distribution of nutrients during hydrothermal carbonization of chicken feather is very essential to understand nutrient retrieval by hydrochar directly as soil amendments. An important pathway for hydrochar to alter the availability of soil phosphorus (p) is to change P sorption characteristics of the soil. The aim of this study was to investigate the state and transformation of phosphorus during HTC process of chicken feather and bioavailability of phosphorus at different hydrochar application rates (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3g per 20g soil) in soils. The amount of phosphorus during HTC conversion increased with low temperature and residence time. Initially, the phosphorus was captured by each treatment of hydrochar mixed soil but gradually released with time. Different soil important parameters were also investigated to find out their relation with each hydrochar treatment. Our data suggest that adding of chicken feather hydrochar is a promising technique to retention and slow release of phosphorus in soil to obtain better agronomic performance and also reduce groundwater pollution. Keywords - Chicken Feather, Hydrothermal Carbonization, Hydrochar, Optimization, Bioavailability, Soil Amendments