Paper Title
Inverse Kinematics of Piezoelectric Spherical Actuator

This paper presents two different kinematical schemes of piezoelectric spherical actuator (SA), those spinning axes are perpendicular to each other all the time. This kind of SA is rear and has special features, so it can be pronounced as original or real too. The output movements of the schemes are different according to the same parameters of excitation. The same theory is also true, if a different assignment of coordinate systems is used. The main parts of the actuator are a spherical segment and a modified piezoelectric tube. The last one can be made from a casual tube, which internal electrode layer is separated into three even longitudinal segments using the methods of mechanical or electrical erosion. Direct and inverse kinematic solutions for different schemes of piezoelectric SA are estimated and confirmed. Keywords - Real Spherical Actuator, Piezoelectricity, Direct Kinematics, Inverse Kinematics.