The influence of social condition towards The string ensemble development in rattanakosin era
The research aims to study the influence of social condition towards the string ensemble development during Rattanakosin period; and to study the role of string ensemble in Thai society. The study is counted as a historical research applying a set of methods, namely, documentation research, field study, and in-depth interview with 10 historians and Thai classical music experts.The research results are as follows : According to the research on the Thai string ensemble, the first ensemble was created at the earlyAyutthayaperiod and was popularly performed among artists until the early Rattanakosin era.During the Western colonialism, the Thai society was changed in terms of policy by King Rama IV.A lot ofdevelopmentplans were launched to be compatible withthe western.In particular, the Royal court and noble circle adjusted themselves by adopting some western cultures. The Thai string ensemble was developed and formed as a recreational activity to please the elite group. The later king, King Chulalongkorn,had expanded his father’s idea of modernization by sending his sons and cousins to study in Europe. In the meantime, the Thai musicians and singers also had chances to perform, exchange and share their experience with the western artists. Upon their return to Thailand, the western style of performance was introduced to the royal court and some instruments were added to the conventional band, such as violin and organ. These were continuously adapted to the royal court of King Rama VI, King Vajiravudh, who graduated from Oxford University, as the Thai string ensemble with piano. After the Siamese coup d'état of 1932, the popularity of the Thai string ensemble was transcended to the civil services and the rich. Regarding the role of the Thai string ensemble found in the documents, it was performed in the auspicious events – wedding ceremony. And from the in-depth interview, it was obvious that the ensemble was not performed for earning, but for the pleasure among favorites. Therefore, it was gradually transmitted from the royal household to the civil servants. The rehearsal at the band master’s place, the new narration and composition and the gathering for album recording for sale were also found. It is, nowadays, classified as one of the national heritage.
Keywords- Influence of Social, Condition towards, Thai String Ensemble