Investigate on the Feasibility of Chlorella sp. T4 Cultivation in Dairy and Poultry Effluents: Treatment of Wastewater and Biodiesel Production
Many industries such as food industry generate huge amounts of wastewater in their processes, namely the food processing industry. The effluent derived from the dairy and poultry sectors is rich in organic compounds such as phosphate, ammonia and/ or nitrate. The ability of microalgae to grow in a nutrient-rich environment and removes nutrients from wastewater makes them attractive for sustainable and low-cost treatment of wastewater. The valuable biomass produced during phycoremediation can be further used for biotechnological application. In this study, the feasibility of Chlorella sp. T4 cultivation in dairy (raw, sludge and final effluent) and poultry wastewater was investigated. The raw effluent from dairy wastewater was adjusted into different concentration and 60% was found to be optimum for high algal growth. Furthermore, Chlorella sp. T4 demonstrated high nutrient removal efficiency in different wastewater (dairy and poultry wastewater) with removal ranging of 85 -94% for nitrogen and 35-93% for phosphorus. The biomass yield using wastewater was higher compared to synthetic medium (BG-11), the highest value being obtained in poultry wastewater (1.28 g L-1). The produced biomass contained 24.5 – 34.6% of proteins, 20.7 – 33.3% of carbohydrates and 16.2 - 25.7% of lipids, regardless of the type of wastewater. The fatty acid analysis revealed that palmitic (16:0), Palmitoleic (16:1), stearic (C18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2) acids are the major fatty acid in Chlorella sp. T4 cultivated in poultry and dairy wastewater. The results of this study revealed that Chlorella sp. T4 is the potential candidate for dairy and poultry treatment, and lipid and protein and carbohydrates accumulation.
Keywords - Chlorella sp. T4, Dairy Wastewater, Lipid Profile, Nutrient Removal, Poultry Wastewater.