Paper Title
Histopathological Effects of Some Phytochemical Groups Extracted from Calotropis Procera and Bacillus Thuringiensis Israelensis (Bti) Against Musca Domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

Musca domestica is resistant to many insecticides; hence, biological control is a suitable alternative. The objective of our study is to test the synergistic effect of some phytochemical groups; calactin, calotoxin and calotropin extracted from Calotropis procera(by topical application on 3rd larval instar, at a dose of 3ul/larva) and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (HD-1) by injection at a dose of 5ul/adult, on the histopathology of mid gut and integument of M. domestica adults. The experimental phytochemical groups consumed prior to the challenge with bacterial injection has been shown to modify susceptibility of M. domestica to diseases. In this study, results demonstrated that insects treated with the experimental phytochemical groups confirm the performance of (Bti) and showed high histopathological deformations in the mid gut and integument structure than control group and insects treated with calotropin were the most susceptible group to Bti . Some pathological symptoms induced in the mid gut were drastic damages in the epithelial cells, some of these cells were sloughed in the gut’s lumen, detachment of the basement membrane, degeneration of the epithelial columnar cells boundaries with absence of nuclei, vacillation appeared in regenerative cells, detachment of microvilli from epithelial cells and vacuolization. The integument of M. domestica treated with phytochemical groups and Bti (LC30) exhibited severe pathological symptoms as clear reduction in the cuticle thickness in certain areas and its detachment and separation from the degenerated epidermal cells. Based on the results, the phytochemical groups and Bti can be considered as a new source for the control of M. domestica. Keywords - Musca Domestica, Calotropis Procera, Phytochemical Groups, Bti And Control