The Spiral And Boomerang Model On Transadvocacy Networks Case: The Sarayaku Ecuador
On June 27, 2012, the group indigenous Sarayaku in Ecuador won a lawsuit in the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in its efforts to maintain traditional land of exploration by international oil companies, CGC / Chevron Texmaco. Their struggle conducted for ten years, beginning in 1996 when the Ecuadorian government granted the concession block 23, which is 65% of the Sarayaku without prior communication with the Sarayaku community. The case in Ecuador is interesting because it involves MNC, the weak federal government, and marginalized indigenous groups. I argue that the Sarayaku indigenous community adopted spiral and corporate boomerang model on its transnational advocacy networks strategy. This model was chosen because of the asymmetric position of indigenous compare to the state and MNC. In addition, the state is more concerned with the interests of multinational oil companies. Involving transnational actors such as the ILO, the UN, the OAS, and INGOs does external pressure. Meanwhile, the internal pressure is done by Sarayaku indigenous community at the local level through a protest against the government and oil companies. They also approach company shareholders in order to change policy at the corporate level. The research is limited from 1996 to 2012. In 1996 the Ecuadorian government and multinational oil companies signed cooperation in block 23. In 2012, the Sarayaku indigenous community won their case at the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.
Keywords- international advocacy network, spiral model, corporate boomerang model, indigenous people, international oil companies