Proposal of Standard Guideline for Effluent Water in Coal Mine in Mozambique
Coal mining industry in Mozambique has been developing a lot in the last decade. Multinational mining companies invested billions of American dollar in Tete province to exploit mineral coal. The coal mining companies in Tete province are located inside of Zambezi river basin which is one of the most important in the country. Coal mining industry release metals and acid mine drainage to the environment and it can affect public health and aquatic life in this very sensitive area. Mozambique has very weak legislation for coal mining effluent guidelines, which makes the multinational mining companies to pollute or to use foreign guidelines. The aim of this study is to provide effluent guidelines for coal mining industry in Mozambique based on international effluent guidelines and drinking water standard. Effluent guidelines from different countries and international institutions were analyzed and compared with the Mozambican effluent guideline for coal mine. Each guideline has its strength and weakness which makes possible to combine them and finally provide one strong guideline for Mozambique. Two effluent guidelines were produced, one for mine water and surface run-off and another for process wastewater in coal mining industry. With strong legislation the mining companies in Tete will be forced to reuse and treat their wastewater, thus avoiding pollution.