Demographic Policy of Iranian Shahs in Kartli Kingdom/Georgia and its Results (16th -18th CC.)
According to historical sources, the Iranian rulers began the settlement of the desirable for them population in Georgia from the second half of the 15th century. during the military campaigns of Aq Qoyunlu rulers Uzun Hasan (1453-1478) and Yaqub (1478-1490). They failed to establish themselves in Georgia as king of Kartli Constantine II (1478-1505) expelled them from the borders of his kingdom. The main goal of resettlement of Turkomans in the kingdom of Kartli by the rulers of Iran was to voilate the southern frontier of Kartli. In the 16th century pressure on the Georgians was increased by the rulers of Safavid Iran. In 1556 shah Tahmasp I (1524-1576) established the first “khanate” in Qazakh. On the basis of the latter, Shamshadilo “Khanate” was created. In 1604, with the help of shah Abbas I (1587-1629), Borchalu tribe was resettled in Kvemo Kartli. Shamshadilo, Qazakh, Borchalo, Baidari and Demurchi-Asanlu – “khanates” and “sultanates” – existed within territory of Kartli in 16th-18th centuries. They were under the subordination of the kings of Kartli. Their everyday occupation was nomadic pastoralism, hence, they tend to change their living places seasonaly. They had their own ruler (“khan”, “sultan” etc.). According to the Georgian Historical documents, their seasonal movement and tax collection was implemented by mouravi and other officials appointed by the king of Kartli. The Georgian kings achieved much success in bringing those foreign migrants into the service of the local government. Their income was recorded in the royal treasury and they paid different types of taxes, also they were obliged to serve in military service of the Georgian kings. The Georgian kings and their officials were successful in attempt to impose effective control over those foreign newcomers, who were resettled in Kartli to oppose local authorities, hence Iranian shahs did not achieve their major political goal.
Keywords - Georgia; Kingdom of Kartli; Turkoman Tribes