Biofertilizers: Future and Prospectus in Vegetable Crops
Bio-fertilizer contains microorganisms which promote the adequate supply of nutrients to the host plants and ensure their proper development of growth and regulation in their physiology. Only those living microorganisms are used which have specific functions to enhance plant growth and reproduction. Biofertilizers have emerged as a highly potent alternative to chemical fertilizers due to their eco-friendly, easy to apply, non-toxic and cost effective nature. They make nutrients that are naturally abundant in soil or atmosphere, usable for plants and act as supplements to agrochemicals. The nitrogen fixing bacteria work under two conditions, symbiotically and as free living. Symbiotic include- Rhizobium and Azolla and non-sybiotic include- Azotobacter, Azospirillum. Some bacteria like Pseudomonas and Bacillus convert insoluble inorganic phosphorus present in soil into soluble form which is utilized by the plants. Biofertilizer being essential components or organic farming play vital role in maintain long term soil fertility and sustainability. Intensive promotional activities need to be undertaken so that farmer develop confidence in the use of bio-fertilizers. Encouragement to private industries, state governments volunteers organizations for production, distribution and marketing of bio-fertilizers. These biofertilizers besides increasing in the growth and yield of different vegetable crops, increases the nutrient uptake and also improve the soil available nutrient status.
Key words - Biofertilizer, nitrogen, phosphate and vegetable crops