Child Labour in India: An Investigation in Socio-Economic and Health Conditions of Tribes
The term child labour is often used synonymously with employed children or working child. The child labour is a work which involves some degree of exploitation- physical, mental, economic and social which impairs the health and development of children, they constitute nearly 255 million economically active in the age group of 5-14 years. Most of these children are working in very hazardous conditions in rural and urban sectors. In India, the extent of child labour is not as large as in Turkey, Thailand, Bangladesh, Brazil, Pakistan, Indonesia, Mexico and Egypt. 97% of children are in 12-15 years category their Mean age is 1.77 very critical age group of children are found working in various informal units. Female child labour is more vulnerable threw than male child labour. 57% of children both male and female studied primary level education. 76% of families having 4-6 family members. >68% are working in the field of agriculture. >75% are started working as labour at the age of 8-10 years. 53 per cent of samples tribal children are working 5-8 hours per day and 47% are working more than 8 hours per day. More than 75% of children earning less than a dollar per day. 95 per cent sample child labour expressed that, owner abused and threaten. 58% sample respondents' opinion that they faced scolding/ abusing, harassment and reduction of wages. The study examines poverty and poor economic conditions are the root cause of child labour in rural areas of the study. Therefore, the social development model is the only alternative for eradicating child labour problem. The process of development for poorer sections through the promotion of compulsory education, health and skill development is the need of the hour.
Keywords- poverty, the large size of family, poor economic condition, unemployment.