Memory Deficits and Interventions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
There is ample evidence for compromised working memory in ADHD. However, other memory systems, such as long-term memory, their role in impairments associated with ADHD, and the effects of interventions targeting these memory systems have received relatively little attention. Current evidence indicates working memory training is ineffective in the treatment of ADHD symptoms. A reexamination of prevailing approaches to memory impairments in ADHD is necessary. Longstanding evidence in memory research, more generally, supports the use of strategies that incorporate multiple levels of processing to support and enhance recall. Current memory models will be reviewed, including different memory subtypes: working memory, short-term and long-term memory, semantic and episodic memory. Emerging research on long-term memory in ADHD will be examined, including interventions targeting different memory systems. The positive efficacy of psychopharmacological interventions in enhancing memory functioning will also be reviewed. Proposed strategies for effective memory interventions in ADHD that extend beyond working memory systems will be offered.
Keywords—ADHD, memory, psychopharmacology, strategies.