Comprehensive Survey Of Fpga Architectures: Past, Present And Future
Rapid developmentsinField Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technologieshaveled tointroducing various types of complex chips over the past years from various vendors with different programming technologies;such as Static RAM (SRAM), Anti-fuse and Flash. Hence, today'scutting-edge FPGAs are highly complex in design whilebeing manufacturedon extremely narrow geometries usingadvanced transistor processing technologies such as 7nm FinFet technology. Configurable Logic Blocks(CLBs) and dedicated hard blocks (such asDigital Signal Processors), Block RAMs (BRAMs) and configurable I/O Blocks (IOBs) connected via a complex routing network, all form the full architecture of an FPGA chip. Consequently, thisincreased complexity of currently available FPGAscalls for anup-to-datesurvey which is the aim of this paper where the authors endeavor to give a comprehensive overviewof these available FPGA architectures. This is achieved by following a chronological flowstarting fromthe early history of programmable logicdesigns to today’s cutting-edge hybrid FPGA architectures.Also, this paper includes adetaileddiscussion about fundamental elements of reconfigurable logic. This is followed by the discussion of major FPGA architectural challenges and future FPGA trends. This paper concludes how FPGAs can dominate Artificial Intelligence(AI) inference and adaptive data centers by outperforming conventional techniques.
Keywords - BRAM, CLB, CPU-FPGA, DNN, DSP,FPGA,IOB,LUT, MUX, Routing Architecture,SoC FPGA, SRAM