An Empirical Investigation of The Relationship Between Instrumental Freedoms and Capabilities
Amartya Sen considers freedoms as the ultimate goal and the first instrument of economic and human development. Freedomplays a "constitutive" and "instrumental" role in the development process. It seems important therefore, that public policies must be empowering. In order to provide people with the freedom to live according to their aspirations, they should improve the instrumental perspective of at least five essential freedoms. These are political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, guarantees of transparency and guarantees of protective security. The main hypothesis of this paper is to verify, empirically, whether the interconnection of these instrumental freedoms has a positive impact on the capabilities. Quite as advance the Nobel laureate in economics in Development as CapabilityExpansion and Development as freedom. To do this, this article confronts the second-order construct "instrumental freedoms" (as an exogenous variable) with six first-order constructs (as an endogenous variables). The six endogenous latent variables reflect the capabilities of health, education, housing, employment, communication and mobility and the natural environment at the level of the sixty countries of the analysis sample.The estimation of the hierarchical structural model built under the partial least squares approach using the repeated indicator method confirmed the existence of a significant effect of instrumental freedoms on the six relevant capabilities selected. The effect is recorded at the level of the total sample with some peculiarities at the level of developed and developing countries. While the multi-group analysis suggests that, despite these differences, the model does not differ significantly between the two subgroups studied. This leads to the conclusion that instrumental freedoms positively and significantly impactcapabilities in the same way in both developed and developing countries.
Index Terms - Functioning, hierarchical structural model, human development, well-being.