Paper Title
Evaluating Damage Spectra for Steel Braced Frames Due to Near-Field and Far-Field Earthquakes

Recent ground motion records demonstrate that the near-field earthquakes have various properties compared to far-field earthquakes. In general, most of these properties are affected by an important phenomenon called ‘forward directivity’ in near-fault earthquakes. Measuring structural damages are one of the common activities administered after an earthquake. Predicting the amount of damage caused by the earthquake as well as determining the vulnerability of the structure is extremely significant. In order to measure the amount of structural damages, instead of calculating the acceleration and velocity spectrum, it ispossible to use the damage spectra of the structure. The damage spectrum is a kind of nonlinear spectrum that is drawn by setting the nonlinear parameters related to the single degree of freedomstructures and its dynamic analysis under the specific record and measuring damage of any structure. In this study, the damage spectra of steel structures have been drawn. For this purpose, different kinds of concentric and eccentric braced structures with various ductility coefficients in hard and soft soil under near-field and far-field ground motion records have been considered using the Krawinkler and Zohrei damage index. The results indicate that, by increasing the structures' fundamental period, the amount of damage increases under the near-field earthquakes comparedto far-field earthquakes. In addition, by increasing the structure ductility, the amount of damage based on near-field and far-field earthquakes decreases noticeably. Furthermore, in concentric braced structures, the amount of damage under the near-field earthquakes is almost two times more than the amount of damage in eccentrically braced structures especially for fundamental periods larger than 0.6 s. Keywords - Damage spectra, damage index, forward directivity, near-field earthquakes, far-field earthquakes.