Paper Title
Occurrence Of Typhoidal And Non- Typhoidal Salmonellae Among Poultry Workers In The South Southern, Nigeria

Typhoid fever and non-typhoidal salmonellosis remains endemic in most developing countries with large scale transmission through contaminated food and drinking water. Since the early 2000s, poultry has also been found to be a common food source for Salmonella enteritidis infections. A total of 500 blood, stool, cloaca swab and egg shell swab specimens were collected respectively from poultry, non-poultry workers and birds in Akwa Ibom State and screened for Salmonella species using standard cultural and serological techniques. The overall prevalence rate was 117 (23.4%). Salmonella species were distributed in all the three senatorial districts of the State, percentage distribution of Salmonella isolates were 42 (25%) for Uyo, 35 (20.8%) for Eket and 40 (23.8%) were isolated from IkotEkpene senatorial districts. Out of 372 human subjects screened 77 (20.7%) were positive and 38 (20.4%) were isolated from non-poultry workers while 39 (21.0%) were isolated from poultry Staff in the Three senatorial districts. Out of 128 samples of poultry products analysed 40 (31.3%) were isolated. 23 (18%) were isolated from cloaca swabs while 17 (13.3%) were isolated from egg shell swabs. In this study all the serological significant Typhoid fever cases were confirmed by blood culture. According to sero-grouping and source of sample collection 23.9% S. typhi was isolated from human followed by S. paratyphiA (20.5%) while S. enteritidis and S. gallinarum (19.7%). Among poultry products S. gallinarum,S. enteritidis, S pullorum, S. paratyphi A, and S. typhimurium were isolated from bird Cloaca swab and Egg shell swab. Salmonella pullorum and S. typhi were not isolated from human and poultry respectively. High prevalence of Salmonellaserovars such as S. gallinarium, S. typhi, S. Typhimurium and S. enteritidis with regular consumption of poultry and eggs without proper disinfection and appropriate boiling represent a serious public health risk in Akwa Ibom State. Demographic data obtained in this study showed that majority of the poultry workers across the three senatorial districts were within the ages of 21 to 30 (34%), 39% were none graduate while 30.4% were secondary school leavers. Fever was recorded as the highest clinical signs and symptoms followed by headache, abdominal cramps, diarrhoea and vomiting. Generally, all the isolates identified as Salmonella were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. The results showed that Amoxacillin-Clavulanic acid were 100% susceptible to S. gallinarum, S. paratyphi A, 93% susceptible to S. typhiand 80% to S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis and S pullorum. Salmonella gallinarum were 100% sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and S. pullorum100% sensitive to Gentamycin whereas all isolates were 100% resistant to Oxacillin and Tylosin antibacterial agents used. The emergence of multiple drugs resistant Salmonella from human and poultry shows that the continuous use of drugs in poultry as growth promoters should be re-examined. Other factors as sources of Salmonella contamination in farms can be minimized by good hygienic practices and biosecurity measures. Keywords - Poultry, Salmonella, poultry workers, Akwa Ibom State. Nigeria.