Prevalence Of Adenovirus/Rotavirus Among Under 5 Years Children In Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Background: Acute diarrhoea in children under 5 years is a major cause of morbidity worldwide and mortality in developing countries. Recent estimates shows that 516,000 deaths in children less than five years of age is attributed to adenovirus and rotaviruses caused diarrhoea annually, with 138,000 occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Rotavirus have been identified as one of the most frequent causes of infantile diarrhoea second only to adenovirus. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of adenovirus and rotavirus and to establish the sex-specific relatedness of the viruses causing diarrhoea in AkwaIbom State community in Nigeria.
Methods: A total of 200 stool samples (182 diarrheic and 18 non- diarrheic) were collected from young children under 5 years from January to June 2017. Samples were obtained from general hospitals visit in randomly selected three senatorial districts in AkwaIbom State. The samples were screened using commercially available Adenovirus/Rotavirus Antigen Rapid test using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay methods (ELISA).
Results: A total of 200 subjects were screened for adenovirus and rotavirus antibodies, 83 (41.5%) were significant to the antibodies of the two viruses, 49 (24.5%) and 34 (17%) were positive to Rotavirus and adenovirus respectively. Female subjects were 113 (56.5%) with positive results of 42 (37.2%) and Male 87 (43.5%) with a positive results of 41 (47.1%). Children are constantly exposed to pets both at home and in school which carries these viruses. Among the 83 positive cases 49 (59.0%) and 34 (40.9%) were positive to rotavirus and adenovirus antibodies respectively. Children under 36 to 48 months shows high prevalence of 23 (11.5%) and 24 (12.0%) rate followed by 60 and 24months with 18 (9.00%) and 13 (6.5%) positive and low occurrence among 0-12 months subjects with 5 (2.5%) cases, this is due to the current practice of exclusive breast feeding by nursing mothers, the high percentage of infection is as a results of environmental climate, mother immune system mix feeding and inadequate balanced diet taken in by the nursing mothers.
Conclusion: In this study, AkwaIbom State three senatorial districts were significantly associated with adenovirus and rotavirus diarrheic infection. These include identifying the target population for adenovirus and rotavirus vaccination, educating parents on how to identify and recognize the signs of dehydration and other symptoms of viral gastroenteritis.
Keywords - Adenovirus, Rotavirus, diarrhoea, children, AkwaIbom State.