Immunoinformatics, Antigenicity Epitopes Prediction in the Solute Carrier Family 11 of the Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein 1 (NRAMP) Related with Brucellosis in Cattle
Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonotic disease occurring in humans and various species of domesticated and wild animals including Cattle. As a common knowledge, the antigen is a heavyweight molecule that induces an immune system to produce antibodies against it. This study focused on antigenic epitopes binding prediction of antibodies that produced from the B-cells in cattle against Brucellosis disease, by depending on two major methods schools and compared between them. Firstly, the theory assumed that antigenic sites on proteins have the hydrophobic residues which coined by Kolaskar & Tongaonkar, 1990. Secondly, the assumption that came in contrast form the other which mentioned, that antigenic regions are primarily hydrophilic regions at the surface of the protein molecule, claimed by Welling-Wester in 1985.
The results of the antigenicity epitopes prediction in the solute carrier family 11 of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP) related with Brucellosis in cattle. The multiple sequence alignment of six breeds that show resistance against the diseases a highly similarities in proteins sequences by providing identity score 542/548 (98.9%), similarity score 547/548 (99.8%) and gaps score 0/548 ( 0.0%). Additionally, the higher summation frequencies score for the amino acids which have Hydrophobic properties (A, F, G, I, L, M, P, V, and W) that count 340/548 a.a. and the frequency scored 0.620 and the lower for the amino acids which have Hydrophilic (C, N, Q, S, T, and Y) count 133/548 a.a. with frequency score 0.243, with the remaining 75/548 a.a. and frequency 0.137 which have not hydrophobic or hydrophilic physiochemical properties. Moreover, a significant superiority results in favor of the first theory of Kolaskar&Tongaonkar versus the Welling-Wester.
Keywords - Cattle, Brucellosis, Antigenicity, Epitopes predicted, EMBOSS, EMMA, GNU PSPP and Perl Language.