Paper Title
Role of Microscopy and Earthing in Clinical Medicine As Seen in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

Aim -The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of earthing on the morphology of erythrocytes, platelets and fibrin fibres. Materials and methods - 60 diabetic subjects(30 with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 30 without) were recruited from the diabetic clinic in South Africa. Earthing system comprised of 4 ECG type patches: one on each palm and one on each sole. Patches were connected to a ground cord that was attached to a dedicated ground stainless steel rod, thirty centimetres long, driven into the earth outdoors with soil made moist. Bloods were drawn at baseline (0 min) and at 120 min, just prior to cessation of the earthing session and prepared forscanning electron microscopy (SEM) of red blood cells (RBC’s), platelets and fibrin fibres and measurement of axial ratios of RBC’s and fibrin fibre diameters. Results - Comparison of the axial ratios of RBC’s, showed a significant (p-value <0.0001) increase in the group with CVD. Distinct morphological alterations such as extensive formation of pseudopia, features of spreading and blebbing dominated in almost all the platelets. The architecture of the fibrin network resembled that of thickened masses of fibres. Fibrin fibre diameters showed a significant (p-value <0.0001) increase in the group with CVD.Review of SEM micrographs at 0 min conforms to changes typically found in diabetes. Findings at 120 min, on the other hand showed that earthing seems to have impacted largely on the morphology as the RBC’s (to a lesser extent), the platelets (almost all subjects) and the fibrin fibres (almost all subjects) abnormalities were improved at 120 min, where morphology resembled that of the healthy erythrocyte, platelet and fibrin fibre. Conclusion - It appears as if earthing as an adjunct modality of therapy could still offer new hope to diabetics. The visual differences in morphology between the 0 min and 120 min can clearly not be ignored. Other benefits of earthing offered to diabetics include: reduction of inflammation, electrical stability, improvement of the autonomic nervous system, optimisation of blood glucose levels and enhancement of erythrocyte’s zeta potential. Long-term beneficial effects of earthing on morphology will be needed toaccurately assess its impact on morbidity and mortality in diabetes.