Causes of Infertility Among Women of Child-Bearing Age
Infertility is an inability of a woman of reproductive age to conceive and carry a pregnant to live birth within two years of exposure to the risk of pregnancy. It is divided into two; primary infertility which refers to the inability of a woman to conceive for the first time without the use of birth control and secondary infertility which occur when a woman is unable to get pregnant or carry another pregnancy to term after having one child. Infertility in women can be caused by ovulatory problem, cervical causes, pelvic and tubal causes, uterine causes, reproductive causes, physical barriers, hormonal problems, age related infertility, environmental and occupational factors, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), psychological problems and genetic problems. The risk factors that affect infertility are age, tobbacco smoking, alcohol use, being overweight, being underweight, caffeine intake. The main symptoms of infertility is the inability to get pregnant, other symptoms include painful menstruation, absence of menstrual cycle, swelling of the abdomen and lack of anovulation. Infertility test can be done using the blood, ultrasound, hysterosalpingography, ovarian reserve testing, hormone testing, laparoscopy. Infertility can be treated through surgery, by taking fertility drugs and can be prevented by not delaying parenthood, having an adequate and nutritious diet, maintaining a normal weight, avoiding smoking, excess alcohol, caffeine intake and lastly reducing stress. This papers review the causes, risk factors, symptoms, test, treatment, and prevention of infertility among women of child bearing age.
Acknowledgements- I wish to express my immense appreciation to God who made sure that this seminar is a success. My profound gratitude goes to my supervisor Dr. (Mrs) M.C. Igbodika, I also wish to extend my warm appreciation to my lovely husband Mr. Udenze Benjamin and my parents Mr. and Mrs. I.G. Mgbemena, my siblings and for their effort and prayers.