Paper Title
Effects of Knowledge of Performance and Knowledge of Result as Augmented Feedbacks on Motor Skill Learning in Vocational Education and Training

Augmented feedbacks from the processes and outcomes of motor skill learning provide useful information for learners to correct mistakes and to enhance performance. There is limited research on studying the effectiveness between the procedure-oriented feedbacks (knowledge of performance, KP) and outcome-oriented ones (knowledge of results, KR), especially for skill acquisitions in technical and vocational education. The aims of this study were to explore the influences of KP and KR on sawing skill learning and to compare the impacts of different types of KP. A quasi-experimental research was administered. The participants were 10th graders who majored in car repairing in vocational high schools. A total of 143 subjects were allocated to control group (g1) and three experimental groups (g2, g3, and g4). Group 1 was given KR only as feedback (reviewing their own sawing works and benchmark piece), while three types of KP were given to the other groups: Group 2 can watch videotape replay of their own performance, Group 3 can watch videotape replay of standard performance, and Group 4 can watch videotape replays of their own, standard, and then, their own performance again. A video-guided learning approach was used to demonstrate the sawing skill in the beginning. Then each participant had 10 trials to practice, and received feedback at third and seventh trial during the acquisition phase. A delay test was administered one week later. The outcome measures included the depth and deviation of each practice. Raw scores were transformed into T scores. Then, subtraction of the deviation score from the depth measure was used to represent the final performance for each trial. The results were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and ANCOVA. Overall, Group 2 showed a growing tendency across trials, while the Group 1 had an opposite trend, indicating that learners received feedbacks by watching their own action (KP) might have more capability to adjust movement in successive practices than their counterparts who reviewed outcome performance (KR) only. As for the results among Groups 2, 3, and 4, Group 2 showed better scores than the others, denoting that different kinds of KP augmented feedback might influence the outcome of skilled motor activity. To sum up, using knowledge of performance as augmented feedbacks was effective at improving sawing skill learning, while type of KP feedback was an influential factor that need to take into consideration. Keywords - Augmented feedback, motor skill learning, vocational education and training