Paper Title
Whether or Not Ipm-Adopters are Technically More Efficient Compared to Non Ipm-Adopters

In Pakistan the use of pesticides grew at a higher rate than the production of cash crop especially cotton. This incredibility of pesticides based production has motivated Government of Pakistan to collaborate with international donor agencies to introduce alternative approaches of production such as integrated pest management (IPM) in country which is an ecologically-based approach to control of harmful insects and weeds. IPM is considered an environmental and health friendly technique that reduces the quantity of pesticides without reducing the production. However, data scarcity has hindered a full accounting of IPM’s impact on profitability, health and local ecosystems. Using new survey data, this paper attempts such an accounting for cotton farmers in Pakistan. This study used DEA model which is a non-parametric in nature and require no specific assumption required regarding functional form of underlying data. It can easily be extended to multiple inputs and outputs to measure the technical efficiency. Results of the study revealed that the average technical efficiency of IPM-adopter is higher than the non-adopter. The average technical efficiency of cotton growers in Bahawalpur District is 0.70g between 0.15 to 1.00 while the technical efficiency of their counterparts is 0.64, ranging between 0.20 to 1.00. These results suggest that the IPM farms are using 30 percent more inputs while NON-IPM farms are using 36 percent for the same level of output. However, externality problems make it difficult for farmers to adopt IPM individually. Without collective adoption, neighbors’ continued reliance on chemicals to kill pests will also kill helpful parasites and predators, as well as exposing IPM farmers and local ecosystems to chemical spillovers from adjoining fields. Successful IPM adoption may therefore depend on institutional support for collective action. Key Words - IPM, NON-IPM, Productivity, pesticides, sharecropper. JEL Class - O40, Q10, Q15, Q16.