Enhancement of Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells By Electromagnetic Field Under The High Glucose Effect
Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Treatment of periodontal disease and bone fractures is difficult and requires new treatments. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) is a clinical use. For MSC, osteoblastic differentiation is important for regeneration and new bone formation. MSC osteoblastic differentiation is negatively affected by high glucose effect. Electro Magnetic Field (EMA) is an engineering design that provides shielding and wound healing when used at low frequencies. It has been shown that EMA positively accelerates osteogenesis and wound healing in vitro. This study examined the effect of EMA on osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation in vitro for delayed wound healing by high glucose. Osteoblast differentiation of adipose-derived MSC was achieved by supplementation of ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone. A fracture was imitated with a scracth in culture after osteoblastic differentiation and bone-like tissue formation. Addition of high glucose and estrogen removing in the medium were used to mimic the effect of osteoporosis. Characterization of osteoblast was performed using osteonectin and osteocalcin. The presence of bone-like tissue was demonstrated by Alizerin red and Von kossa histochemistry. EMA was use as PEMF (75 Hz frequency, square waveform, and 1-mT magnetic field) and PRFE (27.12 MHz, amplitude modulation (AM), and 13-dBm amplitude signal) treatments for in vitro wound healing model. Differentiated osteoblasts and mineralized bony-like tissue formation was detected succesfuly in culture. During healing, high glucose and lack of estrogen was shown to be associated with diabetic osteoporosis. In wound healing, the delay in diabetic and estrogen-free environment was significantly accelerated by EMA with faster and better bony-like tissue was formation. It has been determined that EMA treatment may be beneficial for bone fractures in diabetic osteoporosis patients. Thus it was thought that it could be possible to reduce the cost and increase the patient's life quality.
Key words- Diabetes, Mesenchymal Stem Cell, Osteoblastic Differentiation, Wound Healing, Electromagnetic Fields.