Paper Title
Core Body Temperature Rhythm Of Dromedary Camelusing Two Measurement Techniques

Abstract
Body temperature rhythm is a well documented biological entity of homoeothermic animals, where it is controlled basically by a zeitgeber entrained circadian pacemaker located in the supra-chiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. The aim of this study was to investigate the nychthermal rhythm of camel's body temperature using two different measurement techniques. The body temperatures was recorded on a total of 5 clinically healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius) using thermocouple data loggers surgically implanted in the peritoneum for recording core temperature, or using thermistor fittedin close proximity to the tympanic membrane for recording tympanic temperature.Core (Tc) and tympanic membrane (Tty) temperatures of camels showed circadian rhythm reaching minimum early in the morning (06:30-07:00 h) and maximum at the end of the day (17:30-18:30 h). The body temperature showed an oscillation range of 2.3C and amplitude of 1.1Cfor Tc, and an oscillation range of 1.1C and amplitude of 0.5C for Tty. The maximum, minimum and mean of Tcand Tty did not differ significantly (P >0.05).However, the time of acrophase and trough occurred earlier, and the amplitude and range of oscillation were two folds higher in Tccompared to Tty. The obtained results indicate that the characteristics of tympanic membrane temperature did not differ significantly from that of core body temperature. Hence, the non-invasive technique of recording tympanic membrane temperature can be used as an alternative technique for measurement of body temperature. Keywords- camel, circadian rhythm; Body temperature